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Gastro-intestinal parasites in small ruminants in Mali: Tembely 1T.
Galvin 2B. Kouyate 1S. Bengaly 3 and W. Faecal and visceral examinations from sheep and goats indicated a marked variation in the level of parasitism in livestock raised in different geographic areas. Both sheep and goats were found to be infested with identical audltes species, however, with different levels of infestation.
The more common nematodes in sheep were, in order of predominance: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Haemonchus contortus, Strongyloides papillosus, Oesophagostonum columbianum, Gaigeria pectinata, C. Four trematodes Fasciola gigantica, Dicrocoelium nospes, Paramphistomum spp and Carmyerius sppone larval Cysticercus tenuicollis and three adult cestodes Monezia, Stilesia, and Avitellina were identified.
The following nematodes were found in goats in order of predominance: Trematodes and cestodes identified were the same as those sdultes sheep. Variation in geographic distribution and prevalence were noted in relation to the season and management practices.
Since effotts are being made in two ecological zones to assess the impact of mass anthelminthic treatment on production parameters such as weight and mortality. Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Haemonchus contortus, Strongyloides papillosus, Oesophagostonum columbianumGaigeria pectinata, C. Introduction Sheep and goats, although representing an important source of animal protein in semi-arid countries such as Mali, seem to have benefited little from veterinary care and production improvement.
Goats are adltes the main supply of daily meat in rural areas. Sheep, on the other hand, are used in ceremonial festivities throughout the country, providing important trade mainly male sheep between rural and urban areas. Together, sheep and goats provide a large portion of the meat consumed and produce a considerable amount of manure, which is of special importance in those areas where cattle are of lesser importance. Different breeds have been adapted to different environments.
Long-legged sheep and goats are found in the Sahelian regions, and the dwarf breed are found in the Sudanese region of Mali.
Although adapted to local climatic and nutritional conditions, economic production of small ruminants is hampered by infectious and parasitic diseases coupled with inadequate management as mentioned by Nawathe et al Epidemiology Materials and methods Sites of collection In order to obtain adequate numbers of samples from the animals, all collections were made at abattoirs.
To obtain data on seasonal variations in parasite populations and biology, attempts were made to make a minimum of four collections at most sites. Points of collection are shown in Figure 1. Selection of the abattoirs was based on the number of individual animals slaughtered daily and the probability of obtaining native animals from the aeultes ecological regions of Mali.
Climatic data Monthly temperature and rainfall data were obtained from the National Agroclimatological Office at Bamako. Parasitological findings Nematodes Sahelian sheep The following parasites species were recorded from Sahelian sheep in order of predominance: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Haemonchus contortus Strongyloides papillosus, Cooperia curticei, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Skrjabinema ovis and Trichuris ovis. Mao of Mali showing major rivers and collection sites. Sudanese dwarf sheep The results obtained from this survey may not reflect the overall field situation due to a limited sample size from the abattoirs visited.
Sahelian goats Based cestodse post-mortem examination, the following nematodes were identified in long-legged Sahelian goats in order of predominance: Sudanese dwarf goats Only two nematode species were found in significant numbers. Prevalence figures are given in Table 1. There was a relatively high prevalence of G. Only one sheep was found to be infected with Schistosoma spp. No Dicrocoelium was found during the course of the investigation. Sudanese dwarf sheep Not a single F. Due to a limited sample size, the results of this investigation concerning the dwarf sheep may not reflect the overall field situation.
Sahelian goats Trematodes were found with the following frequency: Sudanese dwarf cestodea No Fasciola was recovered in these goats in the course of this investigation. Parasite profiles of sheep and goats from different geographic areas of Mali. Cestodes The only larval cestode reported in this study is Cysticercus tenuicollis. Postmortem examination showed the following prevalence: Discussion In the traditional management of animals in Mali, sheep and goats are grazed cestoodes.
This parasitogical survey has shown that they also share the same parasite species bun with different levels of infection.
Studies conducted in Australia also showed that sheep and goats were infected with the same species of worms when grazed together Malins, However, conflicting results have been reported elsewhere in Africa McCulloch et al, and in Europe Le Riche et al, with different types of management. One explanation for the difference in worm burdens and composition in sheep and goats is that the latter they are browsers as well as grazers and, if feeding on scrub high enough, they could avoid most of the infective trichostrongyle larvae.
Nematodes Haemonchus contortus Heavy infections coincided with the rainy season, then progressively declined during the dry season. Immature stages most of which were at an early stage of development were recorded during the dry season and, thus, probably contributed to the increase of the adult populations during the rainy season. These findings suggest that most of the larvae had undergone inhibition of development during the drier period of the year.
The phenomenon, as described in cattle, is commonly known to occur in sheep in temperate regions Donald et al, ; Dinneen et al, ; Michael qdultes recently recognised in tropical Africa. Studies done in Senegal Vercruysse,cextodes shown that larvae ingested between October and December were inhibition-prone, the adult populations resulting from the burden acquired during the previous August.
CESTODE – Definition and synonyms of cestode in the French dictionary
Furthermore, the study showed that from January onwards, as the hypobiotic larvae started to mature, these new adults gradually replaced the older population and seeded the pasture with eggs. Therefore, the author concluded that starting in June-July-August, a new population of adult worms developed.
This decrease coincided with a sharp increase of the adult population suggesting the maturation of the immature worms. Additional data are required from the dwarf adhltes in the Sudanese region to ascertain the survival mechanisms of the parasite.
Trichostrongylus colubriformis Although the genus Trichostrongylus is considered to occur primarily in temperate regions and not thought to thrive during the warm rainy season Grant,results from this study indicate that this species may be of economic importance in sheep in Mali because it is one of the most prevalent species both in the Sudanese and in the Sahelian regions.
Meaning of “cestode” in the French dictionary
In the Sahelian sheep, T. Galgeria pachyscells Since the first report on the occurrence of the hookworm Gaigeria pachyscelis in sheep and goats in South Africa Orlepp,a wide distribution of the parasite has been reported in tropical Africa. Graber recognised this parasite among native sheep of Senegal.
These findings suggest that the parasite thrives in a region with higher rainfall. However, research is needed to ascertain the importance of the epidemiology of this parasite in Mali. In Mali, it appears from this study that nodular form of the infection is of greater economic importance with a prevalence rate of 25 to The presence of nodules on viscera is of prime importance for the rural population because the infected intestines are subject to condemnation during meat inspection and are therefore lost for use as sausage casings.
The following species were identified: Cooperia pectinata, Cestodee punctata and C. The difference in the level of infection and prevalence is probably due to difference in resistance to infection and grazing habits of the host species.
Further investigation is needed to assess the pathology of schistosomes in small ruminants because of increasing reports of damage that the parasite might cause in sheep Vercruysse, Cestodes Cysticercus tenuicollis was widely distributed among small ruminants in Mali. However, this parasite is known to be of low pathogenicity Dunn, Other species, such as Moniezia, Avitellina and Stilesia were also commonly associated with sheep and goats.
Control strategy in the semi-arid zone Materials and methods The experiment was carried out in the Djoni village located in the Bamako country, km north-east of Bamako with an average annual rainfall ranging from – mm.
One hundred and fifty goats and 70 sheep aged from birth to 24 months were adulltes at random into different age categories prior to anthelminthic treatment. Avultes comprised exclusively Djallonke sheep and dwarf goats.
Both animal breeds were owned by small individual households. They are kept around the villages during the rainy season and allowed to graze freely away from the villages without herding during the dry season. Prior to anthelminthic treatment, animals were divided into five diferent treatment groups and all were immunised against pasteurellosis, anthrax, black leg and peste des petite ruminants PPR. The anthelminthic treatments were as follows: Each month, faeces were obtained from the rectum and submitted to a quantitative parasitological examination using the McMaster modified method.
Liveweights were recorded every two months and the average daily weight gain was determined. Results and discussion The following strongyle eggs reduction rates were observed following the prime anthelminthic treatment. Fifty sheep out of 70 from the starting of the experiment were analysed for live weight changes. One hundred and fourteen goats out of the at the beginning of the experiment were analysed for the same purpose.
When the two animal species were combined for statistical analysis a difference of 6 to 7 kg appeared. Since the standard deviations were very high the differences may not be conclusive Table 2. Weight-change analysis on sheep and goats combined. Eight flocks of sheep owned by villagers were identified by ear tags and randomly divided into three groups of treatment according to their weight: These groups were subdivided into three age categories: A quantitative evaluation of strongyle eggs was performed using the modified McMaster method.
No mortality was recorded. Results and discussion Our findings demonstrated that lambs were more heavily infected by trichostrongyles because they were more susceptible.
The maximum egg count was observed between August and October with a peak in September. However, ewes remained infected all year-round thus serving as the source of contamination for the lambs.
No significant change was noted on liveweight between the treated groups and the control in adult cestodfs ewes and rams.
No statistical analysis could be done of weight data lambs because of the low number of observations by the end of the experiment. Bibliography Assoku K G. Studies of parasitic helminths of sheep and goats in Ghana.