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Huangdi Neijing simplified Chinese: The neijinb is composed of two texts—each of eighty-one chapters or treatises in a question-and-answer format between the mythical Yuangdi Emperor and six of his equally legendary ministers.

Collectively, these two texts are known as the Neijing or Huangdi Neijing. In practice, however, the title Neijing often refers only to the more influential Suwen. Two other texts also carried the prefix Huangdi Neijing in their titles: One possible reason for using this device was for the anonymous authors to avoid attribution and blame see pages in Unschuld for an exposition of this.

The Neijing departs from the old shamanistic beliefs that disease was caused by demonic influences. Instead the natural effects of diet, lifestyle, emotions, environment, neijjing age are the reason diseases develop. According to the Neijing, the universe is composed of various forces and principles, such as Yin and yangQi and the Five Elements or phases. These forces can be understood via rational means and man can stay in balance or lignshu to balance huanggdi health by understanding the laws of these natural forces.

Man is a microcosm that mirrors the larger macrocosm. The principles of yin and yang, the five elements, the environmental factors of wind, damp, hot and cold and so on that are part of the macrocosm equally apply to the human microcosm.

So suggestive are parallels with third and fourth century BCE literature that doubt huangd as to whether the Suwen might be better ascribed to the third century BCE, implying that certain portions may be of that date. He is also of the opinion that “no available translation is reliable. The German scholar Paul U.

Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu: The Ancient Classic on Needle Therapy – History – JCM Article Archive

Unschuld says several 20th-century scholars hypothesize that the language and ideas of the Neijing Suwen were composed between BCE and CE, and provides evidence that only a small portion of the received text transmits concepts from before the second century BCE. Its contents were then brought together by Confucian scholars in the Han Dynasty era. Scholars of excavated medical texts Donald Harper, Vivienne Lo and Li Jianmin agree that the systematic medical theory in the Neijing shows significant variance from texts found in the Mawangdui tomb which was sealed in BCE.

Because of this, they consider the Neijing to have been compiled after the Mawangdui texts. Lintshu Bing collected the various versions and fragments of the Suwen and reorganized it into the present eighty-one chapters treatises format.


Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu

Treatises seventy-two and seventy-three are lost and only the titles are known. Originally his changes were all done in red ink, but later copyists incorporated some of his additions into the main text. However, the version discussed below restored almost all of huangdu annotations and they are now written in small characters next to the larger characters that comprise the main or unannotated Suwen text.

See Unschuld, pages 40 and According to Nuangdi pages 39 and 62 Wang Bing’s version of the Suwen was based on Quan Yuanqi’s early sixth century commented version of the Suwen consisting of nine juan books and sixty-nine discourses.

Wang Bing made corrections, added two “lost” discourses, added seven comprehensive discourses on the five phases and six qi, inserted over commentaries and reorganized the text into twenty-four juan books and eighty-one treatises. See Unschuld pages 24, 39 and In his preface to his version of the SuwenWang Bing goes into great detail listing the changes he made.

Not much is known about Wang Bing’s life but he authored several books. A note in the nekjing left by the later editors of the Chong Guang Bu Zhu Huangdi Neijing Suwen version compiled by editorial committee which was based on an entry in Tang Ren Wu Zhi Record on Tang [Dynasty] Personalities states that he was an official huanngdi the rank of tai pu ling and died after a long life of more than eighty years.

See Unschuld, page The Chinese medicine history scholars Paul Unschuld, Hermann Tessenow and their team at the Institute for the History of Medicine at Munich University have translated the Neijing Suwen into English, including an analysis of the historical and structural layers of the Suwen.

Significant portions of the above Suwen translation but with only a fraction of huqngdi annotations are currently available in Huang Di nei jing su wen: See Unschuld in cited references below. The yin qi has neijjng yet stirred, the yang qi has not yet dispersed, food and drink have not yet been taken, the [main] channel vessels [of qi and blood] are not yet overly active, the [qi and blood of the] network vessels [that branch out and enmesh the body] are harmonious and stable, and the qi and blood are not yet disordered — thus, for these reasons, an abnormal pulse can be detected.

Zhong Yi Neijint Ji Chupage The name of the watch corresponding to a. Further, the second paragraph in the limgshu translation states the doctor is to observe the five colors of the patient, something that is not going to be accurately done at 3: To correctly perceive the colors of the complexion without bias, natural lighting huangdl.

It may kingshu mean the essence of the mind or emotions. Thus, it may be referring to judging the mental and emotional state of the patient as well as the general level of vitality and spirit present as observed via the patient’s eyes.


The essence clearness-brightness jing ming is the means for observing all material-things, distinguishing white and black, examining short and long.

To lingsuh long for short, to regard white for black, if this [occurs] then the essence is feeble-and-declining! Translation and notes by Robert A. Threlfall, January 24, The laws of diagnosis [are as follows]. As a rule, it is at dawn, before yin qi has begun its movement, before yang qi is dispersed, before beverages and food have been consumed, lingehu the conduit vessels are filled to abundance, when the [contents of the] network vessels are balanced, before the qi and blood move in disorder, that, hence, one can diagnose an abnormal [movement in the] vessels.

Squeeze the vessels, whether [their movement] is excited or quiet, and observe the essence-brilliance. Investigate the five complexions. Observe whether the five depots have a surplus or an insufficiency, whether the six palaces are strong or weak, and whether the physical appearance is marked by abundance or decays. Hkangdi this is brought together to reach a conclusion [enabling one] to differentiate between [the patient’s] death and survival.

In this situation can the pulse condition be diagnosed effectively. When these aspects are considered comprehensively, one linghsu judge the date of the death or survival of the patient.

One should examine the five colors and the five viscera, whether they suffer from excess or whether they show insufficiency, and one should examine the six bowels whether they are strong or weak. One should investigate the appearance of the body whether it is flourishing or deteriorating.

One should use all five examinations and combine their results, and then one will be able to decide upon the share of life and death. All Chinese characters are in traditional complex form, except for Chinese book titles which are as published and thus in simplified form.

All pinyin terms are rendered without tone marks, but are otherwise according to the orthographic rules in Appendix I of ABC Chinese-English Comprehensive Dictionary but contemporary pinyin book titles are as published.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the county in China, see Suwen County. History of medicine in China.

Huang Di Nei Jing Ling Shu: The Ancient Classic on Needle Therapy – Paul U. Unschuld – Google Books

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