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Views Read Edit View history. The following physical systems are some examples of simple harmonic oscillator.

When the mass moves closer to the equilibrium position, the restoring force decreases. A net restoring force then slows it down until its velocity reaches zero, whereupon it is accelerated back to the equilibrium position again.

In the absence of friction and other energy loss, the total mechanical energy has a constant value.

The motion mchanics an undamped pendulum approximates to simple harmonic motion if the angle of oscillation is small. In Newtonian mechanicsfor one-dimensional simple harmonic motion, the equation of motion, which is a second-order linear ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients, can be obtained by means of Newton’s 2nd law and Hooke’s law for a mass on a spring.

In the small-angle approximationthe motion of a simple pendulum is approximated by simple harmonic motion.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The above equation is also valid in the case when an additional constant force is being applied on the mass, i.


Using the techniques of calculusthe velocity and acceleration as a function of time can be found:. This page was last edited on 29 Decemberat In the solution, c 1 and c 2 are two constants determined by the initial conditions, and the origin is set to be the equilibrium position.

In mechanics and physicssimple harmonic motion is a special type of periodic motion or oscillation motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement and acts in the direction opposite to that of displacement. The equation for describing the period.


Simple harmonic motion can serve as a mathematical model for a variety of motions, such as the oscillation of a spring.

Simple harmonic motion

As long as the system has no energy loss, the mass continues to oscillate. In the diagram, a simple harmonic oscillatorconsisting of a weight attached to one end of a spring, ad shown. By definition, if a mass m is under SHM its acceleration is directly proportional to displacement. The other end of the spring is connected to a rigid support such as a wall.

Simple harmonic motion can be considered the one-dimensional projection of uniform circular motion. A Scotch yoke mechanism can be used to convert between rotational motion and linear reciprocating motion. Solving the differential equation above produces a solution that is a sinusoidal function.


Simple harmonic motion is typified by the motion of a mass on a spring when it is subject to the linear elastic restoring force given by Hooke’s Law. A mass m attached to a spring of spring constant k exhibits simple harmonic motion in closed space.

The linear motion cassisay take various forms depending on the shape of the slot, but the basic yoke with a constant rotation speed produces a linear motion that is simple harmonic in form. All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Therefore, the mass continues past the equilibrium position, compressing the spring.

In addition, other phenomena rowles be approximated by simple harmonic motion, including the motion of a simple pendulum as well as molecular vibration. The motion of a particle moving along a straight line with an acceleration whose direction is always towards a fixed point on the line and whose magnitude is proportional to the distance from the fixed point is called simple harmonic motion [SHM].

Note if the real space and phase space diagram are not co-linear, the phase space motion becomes elliptical. Once the mass is displaced from its equilibrium position, it experiences a net restoring force. However, if the mass is displaced from the equilibrium position, the spring exerts a restoring elastic force that obeys Hooke’s law.


Newtonian mechanics Small-angle approximation Rayleigh—Lorentz pendulum Isochronous Uniform circular motion Complex harmonic motion Damping Harmonic oscillator Pendulum mathematics Circle group String vibration. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. If the system is left at rest at the solutilns position then there is no net force acting on the mass.

Other valid formulations are: As a result, it accelerates and starts going back to the equilibrium position. The area enclosed depends on the amplitude and the maximum momentum. At the equilibrium position, the net restoring force vanishes.

Therefore it can be simply defined as the periodic motion of a body along a straight line, such that the acceleration is directed towards the center of the motion and also proportional to the displacement from that point.

An undamped spring—mass system undergoes simple harmonic motion. Simple harmonic motion provides a basis for the characterization of more complicated motions through the techniques of Fourier analysis.

Retrieved from ” https: The motion is sinusoidal in time and demonstrates a single resonant frequency. This is a good approximation when the angle of the swing is small. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. For simple harmonic motion to be an accurate model for a pendulum, the net force on the object at the end of the pendulum must be proportional to the displacement. These equations demonstrate that the simple harmonic motion is isochronous the period and frequency are independent of the amplitude and the initial phase of the motion.

Thus simple harmonic motion is a type of periodic motion.