BANU UMAYYAH PDF

The Bani Umayyah started tormenting the Prophet (p.b.u.h) immediately he began to spread Islam. Abu Sufyan was their leader. He led the wars of Badr and . Not really. Banu Umayyah simply the winner of the great power struggle (the First and Second Great Fitna) after the murder of Utsman bin Affan. My household will face killing and severe conditions and the Banu Umayyah and Banu Makhzum will hate us the most. Since the following narration has been.

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The Umayyad Caliphate Arabic: Umxyyah caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty Arabic: The third CaliphUthman ibn Affan r. The family established dynastic, hereditary rule with Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyanlong-time governor of Syriawho became the fifth Caliph after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in After Mu’awiyah’s death inconflicts over the succession resulted in a Second Civil War [4] and power eventually fell into the hands of Marwan I from another branch of the clan.

Syria bqnu the Umayyads’ main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. The dynasty was eventually overthrown by a rebellion led by the Abbasids in Survivors of the dynasty established themselves in Cordoba in the form of an Emirate and then a Caliphate, lasting until The Umayyad Caliphs were considered too secular by some of their Muslim subjects. Muawiya’s wife Maysum Yazid’s mother was also a Christian. The relations between the Muslims and the Christians in the state were stable in this time.

The Umayyads were involved in frequent battles with the Christian Byzantines without being concerned with protecting themselves in Syria, which had remained largely Christian like many other parts of the empire. The employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious assimilation that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, as in Syria.

This policy also boosted Muawiya’s popularity and solidified Syria as his power base. According to tradition, the Umayyad family umyayah known as the Banu Abd-Shams and Muhammad both descended from a common ancestor, Abd Manaf ibn Qusaiand they originally came from the city of Mecca in the Hijaz.

The two families are therefore considered to be different clans those of Hashim and of Umayya, respectively of the same tribe that of the Quraish. While the Umayyads felt deep animosity towards the Hashimites before Muhammad born c.

Abu Sufyan sought to exterminate the adherents of the new religion by waging another battle against the Medina-based Muslims only a year after the Battle of Badr. He did this to avenge the defeat at Badr. Scholars generally regard umayyau Battle of Uhud March as the banuu defeat for the Muslims, since they incurred greater losses than the Meccans. After bxnu battle, Abu Sufyan’s wife Hind, who was also the daughter of Utba ibn Rabi’ahis reported to have cut open the corpse of Hamza, taking out his liver which she then attempted to umajyah.

Abu Sufyan and his wife Hind embraced Islam on the eve of the conquest of Mecca, as did their son imayyah future caliph Muawiyah I. However, it has been noted that Muawiya and his family did not become Muslim because of belief in the religion, but rather as a result of the collapse of the pagan society when Mecca was conquered. Banu Umayya had fostered hatred of Islam in their hearts for many years, and they did not suddenly believe in the religion simply because they saw the army of Islam enter Mecca.

Rather, it has been noted that Banu Umayya entered the religion of Islam as a “Trojan horse” — instead of seeking to destroy it as an open enemy, they would seek to destroy the religion from within it.

The Umayyad’s ascendancy began when Uthman ibn Affan, who had been an early companian of Muhammad, became the third Caliph. Uthman — did not establish bqnu dynasty but placed some members of his clan at umayysh of power. Uthman also uayyah his half-brother, Walid ibn Uqbawhom Hashimites accused of leading prayer while under the influence of alcohol, governor bwnu Kufa [15] and appointed his foster-brother Abdullah ibn Saad as the Governor of Egyptreplacing Amr ibn al-As.

Most notably, Uthman consolidated Muawiyah ‘s governorship of Syria by granting him control over a larger area. He built up a loyal and disciplined army composed of Syrian Arabs [17] and also befriended Amr ibn al-Asthe ousted governor of Egypt.

In Muawiyah was appointed [ by whom? Uthman’s rule also saw the relaxing of restrictions instituted by the second Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab. Umar had maintained a tight grip on the governors; if he felt that a governor or a commander was becoming attracted to wealth, he had him removed from his position.

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Banu Umayya

Deep-rooted differences between Iraq and Syria, that had belonged to the long-warring Sassanid and Byzantine Empire respectively, also persisted. Conflicts over Uthman’s policies led to his murder in Umajyah, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, became caliph and moved his capital from Medina to Kufa.

He soon met with resistance from several factions, especially from Muawiyahthe governor of Syria, who wanted Uthman’s murderers arrested. Muhammad’s wife, Aishaand two companions of MuhammadTalhah and Al-Zubayr uumayyah, supported this demand. The conflict resulted in the First Fitna “civil war” from until Ali was victorious against Aisha in the Battle of the Camel in but the Battle of Uumayyah July against Muawiyah was inconclusive. Ali’s position als Caliph was weakened when he first agreed to an arbitration but then refused to accept the verdict, that both Ali and Muawiyah should step down and a new Caliph be chosen.

Ali’s son Hasan the second Imam for the Umayahaccepted Muawiyah ummayyah Caliph on the condition that he be just to the people and keep them safe and secure, and that he not establish a dynasty to rule after his death. Muawiyah’s personal dynasty, the “Sufyanids” descendants of Abu Sufyanreigned from ymayyahuntil his grandson Muawiya II. The reign of Muawiyah I was marked by internal security and external expansion.

On the internal front, only one major rebellion is recorded, ukayyah of Hujr ibn Adi in Kufa. Hujr ibn Adi supported the claims umayya the descendants of Ali to the caliphate, but his movement was easily suppressed by the governor of Iraq, Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan. Hujr, who had been a sahabah companion of Muhammadwas sentenced to death by Muawiya for his support of Ali.

Muawiyah also encouraged peaceful coexistence with the Christian communities of Syriagranting his reign with “peace and prosperity for Christians and Arabs alike”, [41] and one of his closest advisers was Sarjunthe father of John of Damascus.

At the same time, he waged unceasing war against the Byzantine Roman Empire. During his reign, Rhodes and Crete were occupied, and several assaults were launched against Constantinople. After their failure, and faced with a large-scale Christian uprising bahu the form of the MardaitesMuawiyah concluded a peace with Byzantium.

Muawiyah also oversaw military expansion in North Africa the foundation of Kairouan and in Central Asia the conquest of KabulBukharaand Samarkand. Muawiyah was succeeded by his son, Yazid Iin This hereditary accession was opposed by a number of prominent Muslims, most notably Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayrson of a companion of Muhammadand Husayn ibn Alithe younger son of Ali.

The resulting conflict is known as the Second Fitna. The people of Kufa invited Husayn umayyha their city and revolt against the Ummayads. However, Yazid I umayjah this alliance by having Kufa occupied [43] and Husayn and his family intercepted on their way to Kufa in the Battle of Karbalain which Husayn and his male family members were killed.

InYazid’s army suppressed the Medinese opposition at the Battle of al-Harrah and then besieged Mecca. During the campaign, widespread pillaging and the damaging of both the Grand Mosque in Medina and the Kaaba in Mecca caused umayyqh resentment and became a major cause for censure of the Umayyads in later histories of the period. Yazid died while the siege was still in progress, and the Umayyad umayyan returned to Damascus, leaving Ibn al-Zubayr in control of Mecca.

Yazid’s son, Muawiya II —84initially succeeded him but seems to have never been recognized as caliph outside of Syria. Two factions developed within Syria: The partisans of Marwan triumphed bahu a battle at Marj Rahitnear Damascus, inand Marwan became Caliph shortly bahu. Marwan’s first task was to assert his authority against the rival claims of Ibn al-Zubayr, who umzyyah at this time recognized as caliph throughout most of the Islamic world.

Marwan recaptured Egypt for the Umayyads, but died inhaving reigned for only nine months. Marwan was succeeded by his son, Abd al-Malik —who reconsolidated Umayyad control of the caliphate.

Al-Mukhtar umayyxh to elevate Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyahanother son of Ali, to the caliphate, although Ibn al-Hanafiyyah himself may have had no connection to the revolt.

The troops of al-Mukhtar engaged in battles both with the Umayyads indefeating them at the river Khazir near Mosul, and with Umayyag al-Zubayr inat which time the revolt of al-Mukhtar was crushed. InUmayyad troops reconquered Iraq, and in the same army captured Mecca. Ibn al-Zubayr was killed in the attack. The second major event of the early reign of Abd al-Malik was the construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.

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Although the chronology remains somewhat uncertain, the building seems to have been completed inwhich means that it was under construction during the conflict with Ibn al-Zubayr. This had led some historians, both medieval and modern, to suggest that the Dome of the Rock was built as a destination for pilgrimage to rival the Kaaba, which was under the control of Ibn al-Zubayr.

Abd al-Malik is credited babu centralizing the administration of the Caliphate and with establishing Arabic as its official language. He also introduced a uniquely Muslim coinage, marked by its aniconic decoration, which supplanted the Byzantine and Sasanian coins that had previously been in use.

Abd al-Malik also recommenced offensive warfare against Byzantium, defeating the Byzantines at Sebastopolis and recovering control over Armenia and Caucasian Iberia. The conquest of Sindh and Punjab, in modern-day Pakistanalthough costly, were major gains for the Umayyad Caliphate. However, further gains were halted by the death of Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf Al-Thaqafi, as after his death Muhammad was called back from his conquests.

Banu Umayyah in the View of the Holy Qur’an | Understanding Karbala |

After this, Muslim chroniclers admit that the Caliph Mahdi “gave up the project of conquering any part of India”. Many Iraqis remained resistant to Umayyad umaytah, and to maintain order al-Hajjaj imported Syrian troops, which he housed in a new garrison town, Wasit.

These troops became crucial in the suppression of a revolt led by an Umayya general, Ibn al-Ash’athin the early eighth century. Al-Walid was succeeded by his brother, Sulayman —17whose reign was dominated by a protracted siege of Constantinople.

The failure of the siege marked the end bank serious Arab ambitions against the Byzantine capital. However, the first two decades of the eighth century witnessed the continuing expansion of the Caliphate, which pushed into the Iberian Peninsula in the west, and into Transoxiana in the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana under Qutayba ibn Muslim and northern India in the east.

Arab sources claim Qutayba ibn Muslim briefly took Kashgar from China and withdrew after an agreement [45] but modern historians entirely dismiss this claim. The deposed king fled to Kucha seat of Anxi Protectorateand sought Chinese intervention. He defeated Alutar and the Arab occupation ukayyah at Namangan and reinstalled Ikhshid on the throne.

Sulayman was succeeded by his cousin, Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz —20whose position among the Umayyad caliphs is somewhat unusual. He is the only Umayyad ruler to have been recognized by subsequent Islamic tradition as a genuine caliph khalifa and not merely as a worldly king malik.

Umar is honored for his attempt to resolve the fiscal problems attendant upon conversion to Islam. During the Umayyad period, the majority of people living within the caliphate were not Muslim, but ChristianJewishZoroastrianor members of other small groups.

The Caliphate of Banu Umayyah by ابن كثير

These religious communities were not forced to convert umayyyah Islam, but were subject to a tax jizyah which was not imposed upon Muslims. This situation may actually have made widespread conversion to Islam undesirable from the point of view of state revenue, and there are reports that provincial governors actively discouraged such conversions.

It is umayah clear how Umar attempted to resolve this situation, but the sources portray him as having insisted on like treatment of Arab and non-Arab bqnu Muslims, and on the removal of obstacles to the conversion of non-Arabs to Islam.

Yazid is best bqnu for his ” iconoclastic edict “, which ordered the destruction of Christian images within the territory of the Caliphate. Inanother major revolt arose in Iraq, this time led by Yazid ibn al-Muhallab.

The final son of Abd al-Malik to become caliph was Hisham —43whose long and eventful reign was above all marked by the curtailment of military expansion. Hisham established his court at Resafa in northern Umsyyah, which was closer to the Byzantine border than Damascus, and resumed hostilities against the Byzantines, which had lapsed following the failure of the last siege of Constantinople. The new campaigns resulted in a number of successful raids into Anatoliabut also in a major defeat the Battle of Akroinonand did not lead to any significant territorial expansion.