cawiki Aeterni regis; dewiki Aeterni regis; enwiki Aeterni regis; eswiki Aeterni regis; euwiki Aeterni regis; frwiki Aeterni regis; lbwiki Aeterni regis; slwiki Aeterni . Ultimus Triritus Probatum Romanus is three sets of official and sacred writs issued throughout the year. , signifying the collapse and termination of the. The second Crown was created in with the papal bull Aeterni Regis, meaning “Eternal Crown”, by Sixtus IV, being only the 2nd of three papal bulls as .
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A papal bull is a special kind of patent or charter issued by a pope. It is named after the seal bulla that is appended to the end to authenticate it. Papal bulls were originally issued by popes for various reasons of public communication, but after the fifteenth century C.
Modern scholars have retroactively used the term “bull” to describe any elaborate papal document issued in the form of a decree or privilege solemn or simpleincluding some papal letters. Traditionally, papal bulls always bore a metal seal, but today bulls only do so on the most solemn of occasions. Papal bulls have been in use since at least the sixth century CE, but the term was not used until around the middle of the thirteenth century C.
Original papal bulls exist in quantity only after the eleventh century when the transition from fragile papyrus to the more durable parchment was made.
None survives in entirety from before C. Some original leaden seals, however, still survive from as early as the sixth century C.
The most distinctive characteristic of a bull was its metal seal, which was usually made of leadbut on very solemn occasions was made of gold as Byzantine imperial deeds often were. The name of the issuing pope was usually on the reverse side. The seal was then attached to the document either by cords of hemp in the case of executory letters or letters of justice or by red and yellow silk in the case of letters of gracewhich was looped through slits in the vellum of the document.
Bulla is the name of this seal, which to ancient observers looked like a bubble floating on water: Latin bullire, “to boil. Since the late eighteenth century C. A papal bull traditionally begins with a Latin sentence containing three elements: The bull is the only written communication in which the pope refers to himself as episcopus servus servorum Dei.
Apart from the above, the body of the text has no specific conventions for its formatting; it is often very simple in layout.
The closing section consists of a short datum, mentioning the place it was issued, the day of the month and the year of the pope’s pontificate and signatures, near which is attached the seal. Following the signature in rehis case would regos an elaborate monogram, the signatures of any witnesses, and then the seal.
Nowadays, a member of the Roman Curia signs the document on behalf of the Pope, usually the Cardinal Secretary of State, and thus the monogram is omitted.
In terms of content, the bull is simply the format in which a decree of the pope appears. Any subject may be treated in a bull, such as statutory decrees, episcopal appointments, dispensations, excommunicationsapostolic constitutions, canonizations and convocations. Reggis bull was regie exclusive letter format from the Vatican until the fourteenth century, when the papal brief began to appear. The papal brief is the less formal form of papal communication and is authenticated with a wax impression now a red ink impression of the Ring of the Fisherman.
There has never been an exact distinction of usage between a bull and a brief, but nowadays most letters, including papal encyclicals, are issued as briefs. The following list provides a sample of some Papal bulls organized by the year in which they were issued the list is not exhaustive:.
Finally, a recurrent papal bull, In Coena Domini “At the table of the Lord”was issued annually between arterni at first on Holy Thursday, and later on Easter Monday. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed regus Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards.
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The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: History of “Papal bull” Note: Philosophy and religion Religion Credited. Provided protection for the Jews who suffered at the hands of the participants in the First Crusade.
Provided clergy protection to the Knights Templar and encouraged contributions to their cause. Allowed the Knights Templar to take tithes and afterni fees and to bury their dead in their own cemeteries. Assigned the uniform of a white tunic with a black cross to the Teutonic Knights. Guaranteed the independence of the University of Paris. Authorized the use of torture for eliciting confessions from heretics, and authorized the execution of relapsed heretics by burning them alive during the Inquisition.
Excommunicated all members of the clergy who, without authorization from the Holy See, payed to laymen any part of their income or the revenue of the Church. Also excommunicated all rulers who receive such payments. Prohibited the dismembering and boiling of bodies afterni that the bones, separated from the flesh, could be carried for burial in their own country. Declared that there is no salvation outside the Church Extra Ecclesiam nulla salusand that the Church must remain united.
Ordered the arrest of the Knights Templar and the confiscation of their possessions. Set out the procedure to prosecute aeternu Knights Templar. Convened the Council of Vienne to discuss the Knights Templar.
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Authorized Afonso V of Portugal to reduce any Muslims, pagans, other unbelievers to perpetual slavery. Sanctified the seizure of non-Christian lands discovered during the Age of Discovery and encouraged the enslavement of natives.
Condemned an alleged outbreak of witchcraft and heresy in the region of the Rhine River Valley, and deputized Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger as inquisitors to root out alleged witchcraft in Germany. Divided the New World between Spain and Portugal.
Granted Spain vicarial power to appoint missionaries to the Indies. Declared that the cardinals in a body should come immediately after the pope and precede all others in the church. Demanded that Martin Luther retract 41 of his 95 theses, as well as other specified errors, within 60 days of its publication in neighboring regions to Saxony. Forbade the enslavement of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Approved the formation of the Society of Jesus. Second and final approval of the Society of Jesus. Placed religious and economic restrictions on Jews in the Papal States. Declared Elizabeth I of England a heretic and released her subjects from any allegiance to her. Reestablished the Society of Jesus. Allowed the admittance of Communion to children who have reached the age of reason about seven years old.
Defined the dogma of the Assumption of Mary. Summoned the Second Vatican Council.